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Key to initials used in entries

 

ARA - Associate of Royal Academy

ARE - Associate of  Royal Society of Painter-Etchers

ARWS - Associate og Royal Watercolour Society

AOWS - Associate of Old Watercolour Society

BI - British Institution 1806-67 (Rival to Royal Academy)

BWS - British Watercolour Society

HRSA - Honorary Member of Royal Scottish Academy

NEAC - New English Art Club

PRA - President of Royal Academy

PS - Pastel Society

RA - Royal Academy

RBA - Royal Society of British Artists

RE - Royal Society of Painter Etchers (Now Royal Society of Painter - Printmakers)

RI - Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolours

ROI - Royal Institute of Painters in Oil - Colours

RPE - Former name of Royal Society of painter - Etchers

RSA - Royal Scottish Academy

RSW - Royal Scottish Watercolour Society

RWS - Royal Watercolour Society

SS - Suffolk Street (Royal Society of British Artists)

 


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 Artists, etchers and engravers

ABBOT, Lemuel Francis (1760-1803)
A portrait painter famous for pictures of Lord Nelson. Painted members of the Blackheath Society of Golfers.

ABSOLON, John (1815-1895)
Born in Lambeth, London. He was an accomplished landscape, seascape and genre painter in oil and watercolour, beginning as a scenery painter for theatres in Drury Lane and Covent Garden, London. He began painting in oil, but following a four year stay in Paris from 1835, he changed his medium to watercolour. His watercolours were praised for their 'fresh and breezy manner', and were well exhibited.

ADAMS, Douglas (fl 1880-1905)
A London sporting and landscape painter. His landscapes were mainly views of Scotland and Ireland. Adams was better known for his pictures of sporting scenes, fishing, golf and wild fowl shooting, which were widely published. His golfing series are amongst the most famous golf images in the World. Exhibited R.A.

AGASSE, Jacques-Laurent (1767 - 1849)
A painter of animals who came from a Swiss aristocratic family, he began drawing the animals on the family estate at an early age. Persuaded to come to England by a rich patron and friend, he settled in London and there produced some of his best work. His knowledge of the anatomy of horses was extensive. He also painted portraits and historical subjects but his pictures of horses are outstanding, and were compared favourably with those of George Stubbs.

ALKEN, Henry (1785 - 1851)
Born in London, he became best known of a family of sporting artists, signing his early work 'Ben Tally Ho'. A keen sportsman he gave an authentic feel to his hunting prints and pictures. He became widely known for his sporting prints and pictures as well as his watercolour hunting, coaching and shooting scenes.

ANGLEY, H.J. (fl 1885 - 1887)
London engraver who mainly engraved plates of paintings by notable artists for the major print publishers of the day. Occasionally he would engrave plates of his own designs, and found great succrss with this formula later in life.

ANSDELL, Richard (1815-1895)
Born in Liverpool, he was a landscape, sporting and animal painter who was skilled in portraying game sports and game. He began his studies in 1836, and by 1840 was exhibiting at the Royal Academy. He followed the fashion for highland genre and landscapes, in a style much like that of his contemporary Sir Edwin Landseer. His work was accomplished and as a result was, immensely popular. Elected RA in 1870.

ANSTED, Alexander (fl 1888 - 1894)
Late Victorian painter and engraver of landscapes, his work is admired for its feeling of serenity and calm, especially his river scenes. A number of engravings of his are held by the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

ARMFIELD, George (1820 - 1893)
Born in Hampstead, London, he was an avid sportsman, a prolific and popular painter of landscapes, wild animals and dead game birds. Best known for pictures of terriers at work. he had a deep understanding for his subjects producing technically fine work. Exhibited RA, BI and SS.

BALL, Wilfred Williams (1853 - 1917)
London landscape and marine painter, etcher and watercolourist who lived in Putney. He traveled in Holland, Germany, Italy and Egypt to gain inspiration for his paintings and etchings. However, most of his subjects were of his home country and he exhibited a variety of landscapes of the English countryside, including views of the Thames, Stratford upon Avon and other towns. Exhibited RA.

BARBER, Charles Burton (1845-1894)
A sporting and animal painter specialising in dog portraits and children with dogs. Producing attractive well drawn work, he was patronised by Queen Victoria. Exhibited RA

BARENGER, J.R. (fl 1853-1855)
A London painter of shooting scenes and sporting dogs as well as portraits of prize cattle, some of which were used for advertisements.

BARKER, Thomas Jones (1815-1882)
London painter. Historical subjects and battle scenes were his speciality but he was also known as an accomplished portrait painter who was interested in Scottish Highland life as well as military scenes of the Crimean and Napoleonic wars. Exhibited RA.

BARRAUD, Francis P (fl 1817-1891)
London painter of architectural subjects and local scenes both in Britain and abroad, in oils and watercolour. Exhibited RA

BARRAUD, William (1810-1850)
London painter of sporting subjects, hunting scenes and portraits of riders, horses and dogs; his horses are well portrayed with skill and charm. A pupil of Abraham Cooper, he often collaborated with his brother Henry Barraud on joint paintings; with William concentrating on the animals whilst Henry painted the figures. His knowledge of anatomy led to his contribution of sketches to two books of animal studies. Exhibited RA from the age of eighteen.

BATEMAN, James (1815-1849)
London sporting painter of hunting, shooting and fishing subjects, self taught, he began as a clerk before turning to painting as a career. He was a friend of Sir Edwin Landseer and shared his studio. A talented artist he exhibited at the main London exhibitions, and contributed to sporting magazines. Exhibited RA and SS

BAYES, Alfred Walter (1832 - 1909)
London painter of genre, portraits, biblical and historical subjects as well as an accomplished etcher and engraver. Exhibited RA.

BEADLE, James Prinsep Barnes (1863-1947)
Versatile painter of historical and military subjects as well as landscapes, animals and portraits. The son of a Major-General in the British Army in Calcutta, he moved to Europe to study in Paris and London. His work was well thought of for its accuracy and detail and he won the bronze medal at the Paris Universal Exhibition in 1889. Exhibited RA

BEARD, Katherine L (fl 1885-1890)
A London painter, renowned for her attractive and detailed flower studies as well as domestic scenes of animals and children. Exhibited SS

BECKINGHAM, Arthur (fl 1881 - 1904)
A London painter of English countryside, genre, historical and romantic subjects. Exhibited RA.

BELLINI, Giovanni (1430 - 1516)
Famed Renaissance painter, member of the Bellini family with whom he studied and worked, painting religious and classical subjects as well as portraits. With his brother Gentile he worked on the decor of the School of Saint Mark and later restored the frescos in the church itself. An innovative artist whose work constantly evolved throughout his life.

BERKELEY, Stanley (fl 1878 - 1902)
A versatile London painter and illustrator. He painted a wide range of subjects including animal, landscape, sporting subjects and historical battle scenes. In demand as an illustrator of magazines and books, known for his military and hunting scenes. He exhibited at the RA, SS and NWS.

BIRD, Harrington (fl 1870 - 1893)
A late Victorian painter essentially remembered for sporting and genre themes and lively fresh portraits of horses. Based in London throughout his life, he exhibited at the RA from 1870, as well as SS.

BIRKET FOSTER, Myles (1825 - 1899)
Birket Foster, one of the best known landscape illustrators and watercolourists, was born in North Shields, and was taken to London as a child. From age 16 he was apprenticed as a wood engraver to Ebenezer Landells (who had studied under Bewick), who advised him to turn to landscape draughtsmanship. He worked for the 'Illustrated London News' and the periodicals of the day as a very prolific black and white artist, also illustrating many books, especially poetry, including Longfellow's 'Evangeline' and 'Goldsmith's Poems'. A volume of his drawings of English landscapes was published in 1863, with poetry by the critic Tom Taylor (patron of W. S. Burton), who churned out the poems to accompany the pictures after Tennyson had refused. From 1859, he had turned largely to more financially rewarding watercolours, exhibiting at the Royal Academy for the first time in that year. He was elected RWS the following year, and exhibited some 300 watercolours at the RWS gallery.
Birket Foster's typical illustrative work was in the form of black and white vignettes, with rather less in a larger size or in colour. His paintings and drawings have been criticised for their repetitive nature, and it is true there is something formulaic about many of the pretty scenes with trees arching across the sky. On the other hand, they are technically accomplished, catch the different aspects and character vegetative life well, and at their best, his landscapes can look most explorable.
(The above biography courtesy of Bob Speel, click here to see his page dedicated mainly to 19th century British art.) 

BLINKS, Thomas (1853 - 1910)
London painter of hunting and racing scenes, born in Maidstone, Kent. Sketching from an early age, his work looking after horses and hounds gave him first hand experience of the subject. His painting and drawing skills were highly regarded especially the natural and lively action of his dogs. One of his more celebrated paintings depicts George V hunting. Exhibited RA from 1881.

BOUGHTON, George Henry (1833 - 1905)
London painter of a wide range of subjects including genre, figure subjects, portraits, landscapes, hunting scenes and sporting pictures. Born in Norwich he traveled to America with his parents and studied in New York and Paris, finally coming to live in London. His work is inclined to the sentimental yet well executed with a fresh approach. Member RA.

BRADLEY, Basil (1842 - 1904)
Watercolour painter of landscapes and genre. Scenes in England and Scotland particularly attracted him. In particular when he lived in London, he painted the neighbouring countryside of the River Thames. Exhibited RA. Member RWS.

BROMLEY, Valentine Walter (1848-1877)
London watercolour painter of fairytales, noble and rustic themes. Found success at an early age. A book illustrator he also contributed to and advised the Illustrated London News. His pictures were romantic and fanciful. Member RI. Exhibited RA.

BROWN, Mather (fl 1782-1831)
A portrait painter, born in Boston U.S.A. he came to London where he achieved success. A skilled portraitist he was in demand by distinguished people of the day, including members of the Royal family. Military, religious and literary themes were also among the subjects he painted. Exhibited RA.

BROWNSCOMBE, Miss Jennie (fl 1900)
Born in Pennsylvania USA, she studied in New York and London. A genre painter her work was exhibited in London and Paris. Exhibited RA

BUCK, Nathaniel (early 18th century-1779)
Engraver working in London in the first part of the eighteenth century. Produced a set of views of England but chiefly collaborated with his brother Samuel.

BUCK, Samuel (1696-1779)
Eighteenth century painter and important engraver in London. Worked mainly on views of ruined churches, country mansions and towns in England and Wales. Exhibited RA.

BURGESS, William (1755-1813)
Architectural engraver specialising in churches and cathedrals of England. His work is outstanding for its detail and clarity.

BURNE-JONES, Edward Coley (1833-1898)
Edward Coley Burne-Jones, born in Birmingham, showed little inclination towards art as a young man, and went up to Oxford to study theology. There he met William Morris, in the same year, at the same college, studying for the same degree, and they became lifelong friends.
Both of the young men gradually became less sure of their future as clergymen, and after seeing some work by Rossetti, Burne-Jones resolved to become a painter. However, he studied on for two years until he finally met Rossetti in person and asked his advice. Rossetti unhesitatingly advised him to drop the theology and become an artist. Burne-Jones became Rossetti's pupil in 1855, and Rossetti acted as his mentor in many ways, introducing him to influential friends and helping him gain commissions. One commission passed to Burne-Jones by Rossetti was for a stained-glass window, and he subsequently became a master in this art.
Burne-Jones's early paintings were very Rossetti-like, but he developed his own style after travelling to Italy in 1859 and 1862. On one trip to Italy, he was accompanied by John Ruskin. As well as paintings, he also produced decorative work for William Morris's company - book illustrations, tapestries, stained-glass windows and other crafts. His output was prodigious by any standards - over 1000 cartoons for stained glass alone. He completed some 200 oil paintings during his lifetime.
He became ARA in 1885, without even having put his name forward, only to resign some years later after exhibiting only one picture at the Academy. He had a habit of returning to unfinished pictures many years afterwards, so it is difficult to discern changes in his style after he moved out of Rossetti's shadow. He was a very good colourist, and also excelled at drapery, where he did not confine himself to any one style. Careful in composition and a superb draftsman, he was an all-rounder who, rarely for an English painter of the time, had a reputation in Continental Europe, his honours including Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. He was created a baronet in 1894.
Burne-Jones's favorite subjects were graceful girls, angels, gods and heroes, generally sad-looking, thoughtful or asleep. Grace and langour rather than fast action gives an unearthly remoteness to his paintings. Some of his many important pictures are The Garden of the Hesperides, Love Among the Ruins and The Golden Stairs at the Tate Gallery, King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid (at the Tate and at Birmingham), The Brazen Tower at Oxford, Merlin and Nimue and a study for The Wheel of Fortune at the V&A as well as Cupid's Hunting Fields and The Mill in the Henry Cole Wing, Sponsa de Libano at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool and the watercolour St George and the Dragon at the William Morris Gallery. Series include The Briar Rose (Buscot Park, Farringdon UK), Pygmalion and the Image ( Birmingham) and The Perseus Series (Southampton). As mentioned, his characters tend to be thoughtful or wistful rather than emotional, but there are some striking exceptions - The Beguiling of Merlin (Port Sunlight, UK), The Depths of the Sea (Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University) and Pan and Psyche (also at Harvard)
Burne-Jones influenced many painters. These included T. M. Rooke, who assisted Burne-Jones in his work for Morris and Co., John Melhuish Strudwick, Spencer Stanhope, Charles Fairfax Murray and Evelyn de Morgan. His son, Philip Burne-Jones was also a painter.
(This biography courtesy of Bob Speel, click here to see his page dedicated mainly to 19th century British art.)

BUSS, Robert William (1804 - 1874)
London painter of historical genre and portraits. he began by painting theatrical scenes and portraits. he edited the Fine Art Almanac and English Graphic Satire to which he contributed his own etchings. Exhibited RA.

CALDECOTT, Randolph (1846 - 1886)
Randolph Caldecott was one of the most famous Victorian illustrators, despite having rather a short working life. He was born in Chester, and taught himself drawing as a child. His father, a businessman, discouraged him from pursuing art as a career, and enrolled him as a bank clerk in Shropshire. He nevertheless continued drawing, and after some seven years, his first published drawings appeared in a Manchester paper. He began to illustrate for various journals, and in 1872 went to London, studying at the Slade School under Poynter. His career took off the following year with his illustrations for Washington Irving's Old Christmas, and Bracebridge Hall in 1874. From that year he was taken on by The Graphic, and he also made many pictures for Punch and other magazines. In 1876 the first of his Toy Books appeared, which were among the most popular of their type. In 1885 he made an ill-fated trip to America for the sake of his health. After a difficult voyage, he became sick and died in Florida at the age of 40.
(This biography courtesy of Bob Speel, click here to see his page dedicated mainly to 19th century British art.)

CALVERT, Henry (fl 1813 - 1861)
Born in Manchester of an artistic family,  a sporting artist whose talent has been underestimated. His horse paintings were particularly accurate and expressive. He lived and worked in Wales for most of his life and painted a variety of animals including portraits of local cattle. Exhibited RA from 1826 - 1854.

CARMICHAEL, John Wilson (1800 - 1868)
Newcastle painter famous in the nort of England for his portrayal of marine subjects, landscapes and a series of railway drawings. Recorded the Crimean war for the Illustrated London News. A skilled draughtsman his attention to detail and his portrayal of action conveyed life to his scenes. Exhibited RA.

CARPENTER, Margaret Sarah (1793 - 1872)
London portrait painter whose skill in portraying her sitter was in great demand by eminent and fashionable members of society. Added her own perception and style as a woman to the portrait painting tradition of Lawrence. Exhibited RA.

CARTER, Samuel John (1835 - 1892)
A sporting and animal painter, born in Swaffham, Norfolk. He first exhibited at the RA at an early age, and painted a wide range of subjects in a highly polished style. He excelled as a painter of dogs and puppies, conveying the warmth of their nature. His sensitive portrayal suited the Victorian sentimental attitude to animals and his work was so popular that he became principal animal painter to the Illustrated London News.

CHAMBERS, George Senior (1803-1840)
Marine artist using oils and watercolour. Born in Whitby the son of a fisherman, he was a sailor until the age of seventeen. After this he set up as a painter of architecture and ships, however on moving to London he concentrated on marine subjects. His knowledge of sea and ships gave authenticity to his paintings which, traditional in style, were in demand by Royal Naval officers. King William IV commissioned four pictures. His son George Chambers also became an accomplished marine artist. Exhibited RA.

CHAZAL, Antoine (1793 - 1854)
Accomplished French painter and engraver of flowers and fruit. He lived and worked in Paris, receiving the cross of the Legion d'honneur in 1838. His work was so detailed that he published a highly succesful album of his paintings 'Flore Pittoresque'.

CHEVIOT, Lilian (fl 1853-1903)
Accomplished animal painter, who lived in Surrey. Known for her affectionate studies of dogs, especially Scottish Highland breeds, as well as horses. Exhibited RA.

COCKBURN, James Pattison (1779 - 1847)
Watercolour painter and engraver, born in London. He became a Major General in the Royal Artillery. A voyage to Canada opened his eyes to the beauty of the landscape and he was inspired to paint many scenes of that country. He traveled extensively, publishing many books, illustrated by himself of his later voyages and travels.

COLE, George Vicat (1833-1893)
Popular landscape painter. Born in Portsmouth, he lived in London from where he painted the countryside of the Home Counties, especially Surrey. He was particularly attracted by views along The Thames. Besides the gentler scenes he liked to paint the grand landscapes in the manner of Leader. Son of the landscape painter George Cole who greatly influenced his style. A regular exhibitor at the Royal Academy from the age of twenty-two, he was elected RA in 1888.

COLLYER, Margaret (fl 1897-1910)
London painter of figure studies and animals who moved to Kensington from her native Nottingham. Her dog paintings are known for the careful portrayal and observation of the characteristics of each animal. Exhibited RA.

CONSTABLE, John (1776-1837)
A famous English landscape artist. Born in Suffolk he began painting the familiar scenes about him, in the area which is now known as "Constable Country". A formal training in London did not deter him from painting the countryside as he saw it, adding his own genius of observation and interpretation so that each picture is full of light and life. He is considered to be one of the founding fathers of British Impressionism along with JMW Turner, his contemporary. This impressionist feel to his paintings caused a sensation when they were first exhibited, for their fresh natural colour and strong atmosphere. His work had a profound influence on later landscape painters, including the French Impressionists.

COOPER, Abraham (1787-1868)
A highly talented and versatile artist who was largely self taught. A pre-emininent painter of battle scenes, he was also a skilled sporting artist especially with his portraits of race horses. Exhibited RA, BI and SS.

COOPER, Alexander Davis (fl 1837-1888)
Son of Abraham Cooper (qv). London painter of landscapes, dog studies, portraits, genre and scenes from Shakespeare. Exhibited RA.

COPE, Charles West (1811 - 1890)
Painter and engraver of literary and biblical subjects, contemporary and historical genre. Skilled at conveying dramatic situations and painting drowds. Also painted sympathetic pictures of mothers and children and small contemporary genre works which found great popularity. Exhibited RA.

CORBOULD, Edward Henry (1815-1905)
A painter, mainly in watercolour. Painted a variety of subjects illustrating literature, history, biblical subjects and daily life. Work admired by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, and following the purchase of one of his watercolour paintings in 1842 by Prince Albert he became a painting tutor to members of the Royal Family in 1851. Exhibited RA.

CRESWICK, Thomas (1811 - 1869)
English landscape painter specialising in in scenes of Wales and northern England. Frequently figures and animals were added by his friends such as Richard Andsell and William Powell Frith. His work was powerful and highly succesful.. Elected RA in 1851.

DAVIS, Henry T (fl 1850)
A painter of animals and sporting subjects who specialised in portraits of champion horses.

DAVIS, J Valentine (1854 - 1930)
A painter of english landscapes and some genre interior pictures. He painted poetical landscapes of tranquility and charm, using the moods of the weather to add to the atmosphere of the scene. Member RBS. Exhibited RA.

De PRADES, A.F. (fl 1844 - 1883)
Painted a wide range of subjects including sporting and coaching scenes, still life, portraits and military scenes. His work was of a fine quality. Exhibited RI, RA and SS

DICKSEE, Sir Frank (1853 - 1928)
Painter of Romantic genre and portraits. His personal style was much influenced by Pre-Raphaelite ideals, as he was a traditionalist who greatly opposed the modernism in art. His subjects included social dramas and elegant society portraits which were extremely popular and well painted. He was elected President of the Royal Academy in 1924 and knighted one year later.

DICKSEE, Herbert Thomas (1862 - 1942)
A painter and etcher of animals and genre with a special interest in wild animals. Based on his own observation and study, lion, tiger and leopard subjects are particularly powerful. Also made many appealing etchings of dogs and worked with his brother, Sir Frank Dicksee on etchings of his paintings. Exhibited RA and member RE.

DOUGLAS, Edward Algernon Stuart (fl 1880 - 1892)
A sporting painter who lived in Barnes near London, he painted in a very detailed style and his works were widely published, with his main subject matter being hunting. He exhibited at the RA.

DOYLE, John (1791-1868)
Born in Dublin, he came to London as a portrait painter and gradually turned to sporting subjects, several of which including coaching and hunting scenes. His best work is attractive and well finished. He exhibited at the RA and also became a leading caricaturist signing his work JD or HB.

DRAPER, Herbert James (1864-1920)
Painted predominately neo-classical subjects as well as literary and historical genre, portraits and mural designs. A travelling scholarship from the Royal Academy Schools enabled him to study in Paris and Rome, and this enabled him to develop his neo-classical style further. Exhibited RA.

DRUMMOND, William (fl 1830-1843)
London painter of portraits, large group portraits, figure subjects and some historical themes. He also contributed illustrations to magazines. Exhibited RA.

DUBASTY, A Henry (fl 1853)
London genre painter of sentimental, Victorian family subjects, which were very much in vogue with publishers of the day. He is also known for his scenes of country life. Exhibited at RA.

DUBUFE, Claude-Marie (1790 - 1864)
French painter of portraits, historical, classical and religious genre. Studied in Paris achieving public recognition and success there. Excellently painted, his genre pictures have spirit and charm.

EARL, Thomas (fl 1836 - 1885)
London animal painter of sentimental, sometimes humorous pictures of domestic and rural life involving dogs or rabbits as the main subject. Well composed and painted, the pictures convey the character of their subject. Exhibited RA, BI and SS.

EDDIS, Eden Upton (1812 - 1901)
A portrait painter who worked in London and later near Guildford. His sitters were public figures of the day. Also painted landscapes and biblical scenes, exhibiting over one hundred works at the RA.

ELSLEY, Arthur John (1861 - 1903)
A London painter of portraits and genre. Had a talent for painting popular pictures of children playing, often with dogs, with a sentimental style which was very much like that of his contemporary, Frederick Morgan. His technique was good and his paintings are much sought after today. Exhibited at the RA.

EMMS, John (1843 - 1912)
Sporting and animal painter who lived in London. Specialised in portraying horses and dogs, particularly hounds. His dogs were outstanding and his work is characterised by strong brush strokes which he would use to express the anatomy and coat texture of the animal. He exhibited widely.

FARQUHARSON, Joseph (1846 - 1935)
Scottish landscape painter, born in Edinburgh. Known for his skill in capturing the mood and atmosphere of winter subjects, often with sheep in the landscape. His work displays a warmth and tranquility and his style shows an influence of his tutor, Peter Graham. Less well known for his Egyptian scenes (following a visit there in 1855) as well as his oriental subjects, social and rustic gentre and portraits. Elected RA. [[ Joseph Farquharson prints ]]

FILDES, Sir Samuel Luke (1843 - 1927)
Born in Liverpool, he studied there as a painter, coming to London as a painter of portraits and genre. His first work was as an illustrator for several magazines. Recommended by Sir John Everett Millais, Dickens commissioned him to illustrate his last novel 'Edwin Drood'. A gifted painter of portraits, his interest in people can be seen in his crowd scenes where the characters are depicted true to life. He was also admired as a painter of the harsh social realities of his time as described by Dickens. Member RA.

FORESTIER, A (fl 1882 - 1903)
A succesfull London painter of historical genre and domestic scenes.

FRAIN, Robert (fl 1840-1875)
A Scottish portrait and figure painter who lived in Edinburgh. Known for his hunting portraits, his knowledge of anatomy of the horse, together with a good portrait style, brought many commissions in this area.

FRASER, Alexander (1786-1865)
Painter of historical, religious, domestic and rustic genre. His work is said to show an influence of Sir David Wilkie in manner and choice of subject. It is also believed he collaborated with Wilkie for many years. Associate of RSA. Exhibited RA.

FRITH, William Powell (1819-1909)
Born in Ripon, Yorkshire, he was forced to train as an artist by his parents and studied at the RA. He made the depiction of modern Victorian life acceptable, following the lead of the Pre-Raphaelites. Prior to this, the Victorian public had only seen paintings of historical subjects; modern life and dress were considered too drab, and not acceptable subjects to depict in a painting. His first work of this genre, "Ramsgate Sands", proved extremely popular and was bought by Queen Victoria. This gave him the impetus to paint more scenes from modern life, but he still however continued with his historical subjects such as "An English Merry-Making". Elected RA in 1852.

FULLWOOD, John (fl 1881-1931)
Living near London he painted and etched many views of the River Thames, as well as London architectural subjects and famous landmarks. Exhibited RA. Member RBA and RI.

GAINSBOROUGH, Thomas (1727 - 1788)
Born in Sudbury, Suffolk, he spent most of his career in Bathe where, amongst the fashionable society who flocked to the city from London, he found much portrait work. he received some formal training but was largely self taught, with an independent and natural approach to sitters and their background. he did not follow the classical style of the day and his portraits are noted for their subtlety of touch and brilliant handling of paint. In 1768 he became one of the original members of the RA.

GALLON, Robert  (fl 1845-1925)
A London landscape painter. Known for his realistic style, much influenced by George Vicat Cole. He painted attractive landscapes from sketches of the countryside in England, Scotland and Wales. Additionally he painted atmospheric panoramic views of the Thames in London. Exhibited at the RA and BI.

GILBERT, Terence J (b. 1946)
Contemporary sporting artist, born in London. His extensive knowledge of anatomy and draughtsmanship extends from a career in advertising which he left to concentrate on painting full-time following the success of exhibitions in the United States. His paintings are colourful and well structured and he spends much time on the composition of figures before beginning to paint. Celebrated owners of his works include former President Ronald Reagan and the actor Charlton Heston.

GIRARDET, Leon (1857 - 1895)
Living in Paris, he was a talented French painter in oils and watercolours, as well as an accomplished engraver. He was known for his genre, romantic pictures and figure studies.

GODWARD, John William (1861-1922)
London painter of neo-classical genre. He chose attractive young women in Greek costume as subjects in his own personal version of the Sir Lawrence Alma Tadema and Frederick, Lord Leighton style. Exhibited RA and SS.

GOETZE, Sigismund Charles Herbert (1866-1939)
Born in Britain of German ancestry. He painted in oil and watercolour and his pictures were inspired by religious and mythological subjects, he also produced landscapes.

GOODE, John (fl 1810-1835)
A provincial painter he lived in Adderbury in Oxfordshire. Portraits of dogs and horses were his chief subjects but he is better known for large hunting scenes of which 'The Old Berkshire Hunt' is a fine example.

GOODMAN, Miss Maude (fl 1874-1901)
London painter of anecdotal domestic drama, other genre and amusing pictures of children. Though inclined to be sentimental, her pictures do have charm. Exhibited RA.

GORE, Charles (1729 - 1807)

GRAHAM, Peter (1836 - 1921)
A Scottish artist who began his career with figure composition. Turning to landscape, he moved to London and became very successful. The public were attracted by the wild rugged landscapes and stormy coastal scenes that he produced each year, particularly for exhibition at the Royal Academy, and his work was widely published. A skillful artist he could capture the melancholy atmosphere of the Highlands. Elected RA.

GRANT, Sir Francis (1803 - 1878)
Scottish painter of portraits and hunting scenes. Younger son of a laird and practically self taught he took up painting as a profession. A flattering style of portraiture brought success when he visited London. A love of hunting can be seen in his paintings which are alive with horses, hounds and riders. He painted an equestrian portrait of Queen Victoria. Elected PRA in 1866.

HAIG, Axel Herman (1835-1921)
Swedish etcher and painter who lived in London. Attracted by urban and architectural subjects he travelled on the Continent as well as England where he found inspiration for his work. Exhibited RA, and member RPE.

HALL, Harry (fl 1838-1886)
Sporting painter. Contributed to Tattersall's 'British Racehorses' and other sporting magazines and was chief artist to 'The Field'. As his work was almost entirely racehorse portraits, his move to Newmarket, the hub of the racing world, kept him well supplied with work. A major painter of racehorses in his time, his work is comparable to J F Herring Senior. Exhibited RA.

HAMILTON, William (1751-1801)
London artist, born in Chelsea, who spent many years in Italy as well as his native London. He produced a wealth of paintings of a wide variety of subjects, from portraits and rural scenes to classical genre, historical and literary subjects. In demand as book illustrator. Exhibited RA from 1774. Elected RA in 1788.

HARDING, James Duffield (1797 - 1863)
Talented landscape and topographical artist, as well as an accomplished engraver and lithographer. He began exhibiting at the Royal Academy from the age of fourteen. he was a dedicated teacher pioneering a fresh method of art instruction and emphasising the importance of direct observation of nature which he put into practice himself. he traveled abroad producing many fine works for publication and was greatly admired for his work by the public and other artists. Exhibited RA.

HARDY, Heywood (1842 - 1933)
Accomplished etcher and illustrator of a variety of hunting and coaching scenes, sporting subjects and genre pictures, principally with an eighteenth century feel. His portrayal of dogs and horses was perceptive, and they were well drawn and strongly painted. ARWS and RPE.

HAVELL, George (fl 1826 - 1876)
A painter of portraits, animals and coaching scenes. Member of the Reading family of artists. His coaching scenes were known for their accuracy and lively portrayal of the subject. From Reading, he went to live in Oxford. Exhibited RA.

HAYTER, Sir George (1792 - 1871)
Painter of portraits and historical genre, who was known for his large portrait groups. Queen Victoria appointed him her portrait and history painter shortly after her accession to the throne and one of his first paintings was of her Coronation. He was knighted by her in 1842. Through his royal connections he became a fashionable portrait painter of the time. Exhibited RA.

HEFFNER, Karl (1849 - 1925)
German painter of genre and landscapes who studied in Munich. He travelled in Germany, Italy and England, where he stayed in London and painted scenes of interest in the surrounding countryside. Here he exhibited at the RA. On the European continent his work was well received, especially in Munich where he became an honorary member of the Munich Academy.

HEMY, Thomas Marie (1852-1937)
Born in the North of England, he painted marine subjects, genre and sporting games. Estuaries, docks, harbours and old wrecks interested him. Besides the drama of the sea he was attracted by the action of the sports field as seen in his pictures of games and matches, particularly those of obscure public school sports. Exhibited RA.

HERRING, Benjamin Junior (1830-1871)
A painter of animals and rural scenes and a member of the famous family of sporting artists. He often helped his father, John Frederick Herring Senior and much of his work was similar in style to the point that there have been suggestions that in later life he forged his father's work. His pictures of horse racing are imposing and well painted and his work was used for illustrating books. Exhibited RI.

HERRING, John Frederick Junior (1820-1907)
His work is often confused with that of his father, John Frederick Herring Senior, since he initially worked with him and used his signature. A good painter but he could not equal his father's finest work. He painted the same kind of hunting scenes and farmyard subjects with a slightly different technique.

HERRING, John Frederick Senior (1795 - 1865)
Sporting and animal painter, began as a stable boy and then moved to Doncaster as a coachman. When his talent was recognised, he gave up coaching and began a career as an artist. He was taught by Abraham Cooper and his work is admired for its high quality and first hand observation. Many pictures were engraved from his work, some for illustrated magazines. Queen Victoria became a patron. He later diversified to small scale studies of farm animals and farmyard scenes. Exhibited at the RA.

HILL, John William (1812 - 1879)
A landscape and topographical painter and an aquatint engraver, he was the son of John Hill a skilled London printmaker who emigrated to America. He worked for the New York State Geological Survey. Known for his studies of American cities, as an admirer of John Ruskin, became a leading American Pre-Raphaelite.

HINE, Victoria (1840 - 1926)
A painter and etcher of landscapes and architecture, she was born Victoria S Colkett and married Harry T Hine the landscape artist. Views of Oxford and Cambridge are among her better known works. Exhibited RA, SS.

HOGARTH, William (1697 - 1764)
London artist and engraver of genre, portraits and cartoons. His first series of pictures 'A Harlot's Progress' established him as a forthright satirist. Skillful and robust cartoons and paintings showed the vices and follies of the period and he was a major influence on later genre painters such as Sir David Wilkie. The series 'Marriage a la Mode' hangs in the National Gallery in London.

HOPPNER, John (1758 - 1810)
Noted London portrait painter of nobility and royalty. He portrayed family life, especially mothers with children with a skill and sympathy that was much sought after. His portrait of Lord Nelson is an outstanding example of his art which compares favourably with the celebrated portrait painters of his day. Exhibited RA.

HOUSTON, John Adam (1812-1884)
Sottish painter of historical battle scenes, well known for his large canvases of English Civil War subjects. Some of his best work is considered to be watercolours of landscapes, many painted on the European continent together with historical Highland incidents in sympathetic Scottish Highland landscapes. A distinct Pre-Raphaelite influence is noticeable in his use of colour. Member RSA, RI.

HUGGINS, William John (1781-1845)
A marine artist, he began his career sailing with the East India Company, progressing to drawing the company's ships. He was appointed marine artist to William IV to paint official records of ships and battles. Exhibited RA, BI and SS.

HUGHES, George (fl 1813-1858)
London painter of portraits and landscapes, exhibited RA

HUNT, Charles Snr (fl 1825)
Primarily known as a highly skilled engraver of sporting prints, he worked with George Hunt. His son, Charles Hunt Jnr often worked with him and became a successful painter of contemporary genre, humorous and historical subjects.

HUNT, Edwin Henry (fl 1880 - 1890)
Animal painter and engraver. Known for his faithful greyhound studies and horse racing pictures which he sometimes engraved himself.

HUNT, Walter (1861-1941)
London based animal painter who specialised in the faithful portrayal of rural scenes, particularly horses and farm animals. He would often illustrate small anecdotal incidents. Exhibited RA.

HUNT, William Holman (1827-1910)
A founder member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and one of the most vigorous defenders of its ideals. The Brotherhood aimed to react against the teaching of the Royal Academy, seeking a fresh approach to art and an emphasis on visual truth. Poetical, moralistic and religious subjects inspired him. "The Light of The World" is perhaps one of the most famous religious paintings in the World and certainly one of his most celebrated works. A member of the ARSA, RWS, he exhibited at the RA.

HUNTER, John Young (1874-1955)
Painted genre and historical subjects, portraits and landscapes. He lived in London for the early part of his life but settled in the USA in 1913. Exhibited at the RA, including "My Lady's Garden" in 1899, purchased by the Royal Academy as part of the Chantrey Bequest.

ISABEY, Jean Baptiste (1767 - 1855)
French portrait painter, miniaturist and lithographer. Honoured as an outstanding artist by the nobility and later Napoleon.

JACKSON, John (1778-1831)
Portrait painter, born in Yorkshire the son of a tailor. He began his career as a miniaturist using pastel and watercolour. Turning to oil, he achieved success in London society. Elected RA.

JONES, Captain Adrian (1845-1938)
After twenty years as a Veterinary Officer in the British Army, serving in India and taking part in the Nile, Boer and Abyssinian Wars, he took up the painting and sculpture of animals full-time. His horse portaits are good, but he really excelled with sculpture of horses and hounds. Some of his bronzes form public memorials in London today. Elected ARA.

JONES, George (1786-1869)
Painter of battle scenes and military subjects, portraits, historical events and views of towns. First hand experience as a soldier in the Penninsular and Napoleonic wars helped his realistic portrayal of battle scenes. Elected RA.

JOSSET, Lawrence (b. 1910)
Born in Cambridgeshire, he acquired his early knowledge and skill as an engraver of banknotes. This skill and attention to detail has marked him as one of the finest intaglio artists of this century. One of his most important works was the engraved mezzotint plate of the Annigoni portrait of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. This plate was printed as a limited edition for The Times in London which was subsequently over-subscribed. Now retired, the art world is without the continued talents of a true craftsman. He has over the years established a great versatility of subjects, including works of portraits, sports, floral and landscapes. Member RE.

JOY, Thomas Musgrove (1812-1866)
Living in London, he painted portraits, genre, historical and sporting subjects. Large group portraits were finely painted and he was commissioned by Queen Victoria to paint the portraits of the Prince and Princess of Wales. Elected ARA.

KAUFFMAN, Angelica (1740-1807)
Born in Switzerland, she lived in Italy before coming to London in 1765. Sir Joshua Reynolds (qv) admired her work and helped her become one of the first members of the RA. A gifted portraitist, she is now best known for mythological and allegorical paintings. Her works are attractive and finely drawn with beautifully coloured drapery.

KENNINGTON,Thomas Benjamin (1856-1916)
London portrait and genre painter. An accomplished artist, specialising in scenes of society life, especially family pictures. Also painted dramatic scenes of high life which were very popular at the time. He was known internationally and exhibited in London, Paris and Rome. RBA, NEAC.

L'AUBINIERE, Georgina M de (1848 - 1930)
French - Canadian artist best known for her landscapes.

LANDSEER, Sir Edwin Henry (1802 - 1873)
One of the most famous animal painters in British art history, he is also known for his portraits of Queen Victoria and the Royal Family, as well as his skill at sculpture. Studying anatomy and dissecting animals from an early age, he was a child prodigy: successfully etching at eight, winning the Society of Art's Silver Medal for animal painting at eleven and entering the Royal Academy Schools at fourteen. By 1826, at the age of twenty-four he was elected an ARA and an RA in 1831. He was knighted in 1850. Queen Victoria personally commissioned many works from him and some, including "Islay", remain in the Royal Collection today. Towards the end of his life, he became increasingly obsessed with pictures of animal suffering, and some of his paintings such as "The Swannery Invaded by Eagles" are disturbingly gruesome. However, his popularity amongst the Victorian public was assured with prints of paintings like "The Monarch of the Glen" (engraved by his brother Thomas, in common with many of his works) selling so well that publishers of the day paid huge sums for the copyright of his paintings. Hiss skill as a sculptor was rewarded with the commission for lions at Trafalgar Square, London; one of Britain's most celebrated landmarks.

LAMBERT, E F (fl 1823 - 1846)
A London painter of portraits, historical and literary scenes. Portraits, both animal and human, formed the majority of his work, with commissions of champion race horses being amongst some of his more important works. Exhibited RA.

LAW, David (1831 - 1901)
A Scottish painter and etcher who spent 20 years as a map engraver for the British Ordnance Survey in Southampton. As a watercolourist, he painted landscapes, detailed scenes of ships and architectural subjects. One of the founding members of the Royal Society of Painter Etchers, formed to protect the rights of etchers and to promote the craft as a work of art in its own right. His etchings of the paintings of Turner and Corot are well known, but it is with etchings of his own work , such as his series of British castles, that he found real and justifiable success. RPE, RBA and exhibited RA.

LAWRENCE, Sir Thomas (1769 - 1830)
One of the most famous British Portrait painters. He succeeded Sir Joshua Reynolds as principal painter to George III. His portraits followed the established classical tradition, and the excellence of his work was matched by the importance of his sitters who included royalty, nobility and statesmen of the day. He was knighted for his work and was elected PRA.

LEADER, Benjamin Williams (1831 - 1923)
The Worcestershire landscape artist added the name Leader to avoid confusion with the Williams family of artists to whom he was not related. Accepted as one of the true master of British Victorian landscape painting, his early works displayed a Pre-Raphaelite influence of colour. later works became increasingly loose and impressionistic, but he is chiefly known for the tranquility and warmth of his works painted in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; many were widely published. Elected RA.

LEIGHTON, Edmund Blair (1853 - 1922)
A painter of historical genre and figure subjects. His paintings are detailed and anecdotal, very often containing a romantic theme. They display a sentimentality and warmth that was much sought after by the Victorian public with the result that his works were widely an successfully published. Exhibited RA.

LEIGHTON, Frederick Lord (1830-1896)
A painter of portraits, historical and mythological subjects. His works often followed a classical theme and he would visit classical remains to search for authentic backgrounds for his painting. He was a strong influence on the neoclassical tradition of artists such as Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, and his paintings are considered to be some of the most valuable Victorian works on the market today. He was highly respected as a leading figure in the art establishment and received many honours. Elected President of the Royal Academy, he was also a member of RWS.

LEITCH, William Leighton (1804-1883)
Scottish landscape painter and watercolourist who moved to London and began his artistic career as a painter of stage scenery. After a year's study in Italy which was paid for by a wealthy patron, he found recognition and even taught art to the Royal Family. Elected RA, member RI.

LESLIE, Charles Robert (1794 - 1859)
Born in London of American parents he painted portraits as well as literary, historical and humorous genre. After a visit to the European continent, he began to record contemporary life, including pictures of Royal events. He was appointed a professor by the Royal Academy.

LESLIE, George Dunlop (1835-1921)
Landscape and genre painter, son of Charles Robert Leslie. His early work had a distinct Pre-Raphaelite style, but he later moved onto landscapes which became his main interest. He lived near the River Thames, which often featured in his paintings. Elected RA.

LODER, James (fl 1820 - 1857)
Known as Loder of Bath, because he both lived and worked in the historic city, he often signed his work "Bath". He was in great demand locally as a painter of horses and portraits, also painting sporting groups, racing and coaching scenes.

LOUTHERBOURG, Philip James de (1740 - 1812)
Born in France, by his twenties Loutherbourg was a successful and prolific land and seascape painter. In 1766 he was elected to the French Royal Academy. Five years later he settled in England where he also worked at the Drury Lane Theatre, designing stage sets for David Garrick. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1781 and in 1805 published The Romantic and Picturesque Scenery of England and Wales.

LUCAS, John (1807 - 1874)
A London painter of portraits and an engraver. In demand by distinguished members of society and the nobility, his sitters included the Prince Consort and the Duke of Wellington. Exhibited at the RA.

LUCEY, Charles (1814 - 1873)
An accomplished painter of historical subjects and portraits, he studied in Paris. He lived for a time outside Paris and painted large canvases of events in history, the Puritan period being a favourite theme of his. Many of his historical works were painted for Sir John Walmesley who commissioned a series of notable figures in British history. Exhibited RA.

MACKAY, Alex
Contemporary etcher, specialising in detailed wildlife and architectural subjects. He now lives in Kent but when he was resident in London he would, like Herbert Dicksee, regularly visit London Zoo where he sketched and drew inspiration from the animals.

MACLISE, Daniel (1806 - 1870)
Irish portrait and historical painter who also specialised in book illustration. He studied in Cork and at the Royal Academy Schools in London, and began as a portrait painter but turned towards historical genre later on. His historical works of the 1850s are extremely complex with a large amount of detail. "Caxton's printing Press", showing the complete production of a book, is one of his best known historical paintings and was produced in 1851. He was involved in the decorations for the Houses of Parliament in London and as part of this programme, he painted two frescos: "The Spirit of Justice" and " The Spirit of Chivalry" for the House of Lords. Elected RA.

MANLY, Eleanor (fl 1875 - 1898)
A genre painter, specialising in sentimental scenes, often including children. Exhibited RA.

MARGETSON, William Henry (1861 - 1940)
Painter of literary and figurative subjects in a decorative and attractive style. Also painted portraits and illustrated books. Member RI and ROI.

MARSHALL, Charles Edward (fl 1872 - 1903)
A london painter of portraits and genre. His work often had a romantic, story-telling feel Exhibited RA.

MARTIN, John (1789 - 1854)
A painter of landscapes and biblical scenes. Born in the north of England, he ran away from home to study art. He is accepted as one of the masters of biblical painting and was inspired by dramatic episodes in the Bible, painting scenes of great imaginative complexity and power of which "The Great Day of his Wrath" is a good example.

MASON, George Heming (1818-1872)
George Heming (sometimes Hemming) Mason was born in Staffordshire, and studied at Birmingham from 1839-43. In 1844 he went to Italy, where he studied art, painted from nature around Rome with Giovanni Costa, and remained until 1855, befriending Leighton in 1853. In 1855 he returned to England, marrying in 1857 and settling in his home county of Staffordshire. His work at this time consisted of pictures of rural life, somewhat sentimental. After problems within the family, including the financial ruination of his father, he gave up painting for a time. When he resumed in 1867, now living in London, he painted idyllic pastoral landscapes at sunset, usually using a long, narrow canvas to give a panorama. In 1868 he was elected ARA.

MAY, Arthur Dampier (fl 1872-1900)
A painter of portraits and genre. Much of his work depicts children. Exhibited RA.

MEYER, Henry Hoppner (1782 - 1847)
A London portrait painter and engraver, he was a nephew of John Hoppner. A founder of member of the Society of British Artists, he also exhibited at the Royal Academy.

MILLAIS, Sir John Everett (1829 - 1896)
Came to London from Jersey to study art. A child prodigy like Sir Edwin Landseer he achieved early success and studied at the Royal Academy School from the age of eleven, exhibiting his first picture at the academy in 1846 when he was just sixteen. Together with William Holman Hunt and Dante Gabriel Rossetti he founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848-9. He is considered to have been the best painter amongst the Pre-Raphaelites, producing such works as "Ophelia", but his later works were orientated more towards portraiture and he moved away from the Pre-Raphaelite fold a little with paintings such as "Cherry-Ripe", "The Nest" and "For the Squire". He was the first artist in British history to be made a Baronet and was elected president of the Royal Academy shortly before his death.

Miller, Frederick (fl 1880 - 1892)
Predominately a marine artist, he also painted river scenes as well as his paintings of ports and harbours.

MOORE, Henry (1831-1875)
A marine painter and watercolourist and one of a family of artists. He began his career painting landscapes and rural scenes, but later became attracted by the sea. Elected RA and member RWS.

MORGAN, Frederick (1856-1927)
A painter of portraits, animals, domestic and rustic genre. He is perhaps best known for his colourful and sentimental paintings of children, in the same vain as his contemporary Arthur John Elsley. His paintings found a great deal of popularity during his lifetime as they were widely published. Exhibited RA, member ROI.

MORGAN, John (1823 - 1866)
A genre painter of domestic, rustic and historical subjects. He painted many scenes of children playing and, due to such similarities in style, is sometimes confused with Frederick Morgan. Exhibited RA.

Morland, George (1763 - 1804)
A painter of portraits, genre and figure subjects whose style is distinctive, often with a rustic theme. He came from a family of artists and learnt his trade by being apprenticed to his father. He led a troubled life, plagued by his debts, but he was extremely prolific and following a move to the Isle of Wight towards the end of his life his subjects became more and more orientated towards fishermen and women.

MORRIS, J C (fl 1851 - 1863)
London Painter of landscapes, animals and genre. As a pupil of Thomas Sidney Cooper, an influence can be seen in his painting of animals and genre, particularly cattle which was Cooper's favourite subject. Some of his landscapes depicted the Scottish mountains which he loved to paint. Exhibited RA.

Neville, A.W. (fl 1868 - 1871)
Equestrian artist who specialised in large scale horse racing subjects.

Nicol, Erskine (1825 - 1904)
A painter of anecdotal scenes of peasant life. Born in Scotland, he was initially inspired by scenes of country life witnessed as a teacher in Ireland. Maintaining his Irish interest when he moved to London, he painted humorous scenes of Irish Life, then concentrated on Scottish subjects following a move there later in life. ARA, RSA.

O'NEILL, George Bernard (1828-1917)
Born in Dublin, he moved to London as a painter of genre subjects. His paintings would often be anecdotal, depicting children and following the demand for such sentimental subjects from the Victorian public towards the end of the 19th century. Exhibited RA.

OPIE, John (1761-1807)
A painter of portraits and historical subjects who also illustrated books. He was born in Cornwall, the son of a carpenter, and overcame his lack of formal training to become an accomplished portrait painter at an early age He worked in London and is buried in St Paul's Cathedral Exhibited RA.

PAINE, J D (fl 1828-1843)
A well respected London architect who exhibited his designs and drawings at the Royal Academy, including his design for the Royal Exchange, which was never built.

PARRIS, Edmund Thomas (1793-1873)
London painter, architect and restorer who painted portraits, historical scenes, genre and landscapes. He liked to work on a grand scale such as his restoration work on frescos in St. Paul's Cathedral. He was appointed historical painter to Queen Adelaide and exhibited RA.

PATON, Frank (1856-1909)
Painter, engraver and illustrator of genre, animal and sporting subjects. His studies of dogs were particularly attractive and in demand. Exhibited RA.

PATON, Joseph Noel  (1821 - 1901)
Paton was born in Scotland the son of an antiquarian and collector. He was a religious, historical, mythical and allegorical painter, sculptor, illustrator, poet and collector.
Paton began his career as head designer in a sewn-muslin factory in Paisley. In 1842 he went to London where he studied at the Royal Academy Schools, met John Everett Millais, and was awarded prizes for his contributions to the Westminster Hall competitions in 1845 and 1847.
Paton was an extremely well educated and cultured man. He collected armour and weaponry, items which appear in many of his paintings, including Fairy Raid (1867; Glasgow Art Galleries and Museums). He not only painted fairy subjects, but also scenes of contemporary life. All are notable for their attention to detail, comparable to that of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Later he turned to religious subjects which were stylistically similar to the works of the Nazarenes. He also worked as an illustrator, for example designing pictures for Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner, produced sculptures and medals, and published books of poetry.
Paton exhibited in London at the Royal Academy from 1856 to 1883, as well as at the Grosvenor Gallery, Royal Scottish Academy, Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1847, becoming a full member in 1850. He was made Her Majesty's Limner for Scotland in 1866 and a knight in 1876.

Pearce, Stephen (1819 - 1904)
A portrait and equestrian painter, he was brought up in the Royal Mews where his father worked and where he had the chance to paint the Queen's horses. Trained at the RA schools and a pupil of the President of the Royal Academy, Sir Martin Archer Shee, he was an important painter of great ability known for equestrian presentation portraits and groups. Exhibited RA.

PERUGINI, Charles Edward (1839-1918)
Born in Naples, he moved to London in 1863. He was helped and influenced by Frederick, Lord Leighton. An accomplished genre and portrait painter, he liked to paint graceful ladies in elegant surroundings with perhaps an amusing, romantic and classical theme. "Flower Worship" was exhibited at the RA in 1895. Exhibited at the RA, BI and SS.

PIQUENIT, William Charles (1836-1916)
Australian landscape painter who was born in Hobart, Tasmania. He was an administrator for twenty-three years before retiring to paint full-time, at which time he moved to Sydney, Australia.

POCOCK, Nicholas (1741-1821)
British marine artist. He began his career serving at sea which had a great impact on his later style of painting. He painted in both oil and watercolour, following the Dutch formal style. He is acknowledged as helping to establish the British maritime painting tradition and as such was a founder member of the Old Watercolour Society. Exhibited RA.

Pollard, James (1792 - 1867)
Taught by his father to be a painter of horses, and by Thomas Berwick the art of engraving, he became a very successful and widely published painter of coaching and sporting scenes. he excelled a crowd scenes and background and his work was much sought after by dealers and private patrons. Today he is appreciated for the historical accuracy and contemporary detail of his coaching and sporting scenes.

POYNTER, Sir Edward John (1836-1919)
A painter of neo-classical figure subjects. During a visit to Italy in 1853, he met Frederick, Lord Leighton (qv), and his work was greatly influenced by this encounter. Studying in London at the Royal Academy Schools as well as in Paris, he was an academic artist whose highly colourful and detailed paintings, came from extensive sketches he made of his models from real life. His paintings were predominately of Greek or Roman classical subjects, often in marbled interiors, evidence of the influence of Leighton. Accepted as one of the leading artists of his day, he was elected as President of the Royal Academy in 1896 and retained the position until 1918, one year before his death.

Prior, Thomas (1809 - 1886)
English engraver. Much of his early work His early work comprised topographical views done after Allom and Bartlett for the publishers Henry Fisher and George Virtue during the 1830s and 1840s. In 1846 Prior bought from J M W Turner the drawing of Heidelberg and published the engraving on copper (1844) which established his reputation. It was re-engraved on steel for the Art Journal (1864) and was re-issued in R W Wornum’s Turner Gallery (1878). He engraved numbers of other plates for the Art Journal between 1850 and 1871. His last engraving was "The Fighting Téméraire" after Turner, completed in September 1886, some six weeks before his death.

PROUT, Samuel (1782-1852)
Painter of architectural subjects and topographical scenes. He exhibited a variety of English landscapes, but his talent and interest lay in painting the picturesque towns of the European continent. His sketches of Venice formed the inspiration for a number of paintings. He taught art and was so successful in this field that he published eighteen books for beginners on the subject. Exhibited RA and member OWS.

REDGRAVE, Richard (1804-1889)
Richard Redgrave was born in Pimlico, London, and determined early on in life to be an artist. Frequent journeys on the outskirts of London gave him a love of the outdoors and a habit of sketching from nature. He also made careful studies of the Elgin Marbles. He decided to become a painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1825, and entering the Royal Academy Schools from 1826, supporting himself by teaching. His early years as an artist were difficult ones, until in 1837 he exhibited Gulliver on the Farmer’s Table, which brought him to the attention of a wide audience by engravings. The Seamstress (1844) - showing a girl working late at night in her horrible bedsit - became his most popular painting. With paintings like this Redgrave became known for scenes of contemporary social life, 'scenes of pathetic and sentimental subjects' and one of the first to use contemporary clothing in pictures (e.g. The Poor Teacher (1843) anticipating the fallen women of the Pre-Raphaelites in the 1850s and 1860s. Redgrave also preceded the other painters who became well known for pictures of poverty - Hubert von Herkomer, Frank Holl and Luke Fildes. Redgrave painted several pictures showing girls with a Pre-Raphaelite look, indoors or outside, and also rustic outdoor scenes and flower illustrations (in the 1840s). He designed some book illustrations, but these were sentimental and not of great merit. He was elected ARA in 1840 and RA in 1851, his diploma work being The Outcast, a rather histrionic expulsion of a daughter with illegitimate baby while her family weep and wail.
Redgrave was important in the organisation of the Government School of Design, established in 1847, and held several posts at the institution, in particular Art Superintendent in the Department of Practical Art (1852), in which capacity he largely organised the English system of art education. In 1857 he became Inspector General of Art and Surveyor of the Royal Collections. He catalogued the 1862 International Exhibition, and subsequently wrote A Century of Painters of the English School. He also helped in the organisation of the South Kensington Museum. From 1825 until 1880, when ill-health forced him to resign from most of his official appointments, Redgrave contributed some 175 pictures to the Royal Academy exhibitions.
(The above biography courtesy of Bob Speel, click here to see his page dedicated mainly to 19th century British art.)

Redoute, Pierre Joseph (1759 - 1840)
Born in Saint-Hubert, Belgium, he was the son of the successful portrait and landscape painter Charles Redoute. He illustrated and published a number of books of his delicate flower paintings, including the famous "Monographie des Roses" with the result that his work became very popular. A brilliant teacher, he taught drawing to Marie-Antoinette and other members of the French Royal Family as well as teaching physics at the Academy of Science. He died in Paris in 1840.

Reynolds, Sir Joshua (1723 - 1792)
Born in Plymouth, Devon he is one of the most famous eighteenth century English portrait painters and one of the major influences on the style of portraiture in art history. He studied the Old Masters in Italy, returning to London in 1753 where he created his own interpretation and style and was held in such high regard by his contemporaries, that when the Royal Academy was founded in 1768, he was chosen to be its first President. He was knighted in 1769.

Richmond, George ( 1809 - 1918)
London painter of portraits, a close friend of Samuel Palmer and greatly influenced by William Blake, he became a member of "The Ancients", a group of Blake followers. After Blake's death, there was little interest in this form of work and he was forced to turn to portraiture as the major source of his income. In this guise he finally received recognition and was elected RA as well as a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.

RIVIERE, Briton (1840 - 1920)
Briton Riviere was an English painter; the surname indicates his descent from a Huguenot family which settled in England in the 17th Century. The family included several painters, and so Briton Riviere was introduced to art at a young age. He studied drawing and painting at Oxford, where, incidentally, his father William Riviere had persuaded the University to introduce the study of art for undergraduates. Though he exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1858, Riviere's first real success came only in 1869, with his picture The Long Sleep, showing an old man dead in his chair, watched by his two dogs. This sort of picture was ideally suited to attract the Victorian art lover, and Prisoners (1869) and Charity (1870) were also gloomy enough to win high praise. He began to exhibit Classical paintings from 1871, with Circe and the Friends of Ulysses producing an instant success. Daniel in 1872, Argus in the following year and the well-received Apollo of 1874 were further pictures in the same genre.
Despite these Classical pictures, Riviere did not neglect the pathetic, with a domestic drama called Come Back in 1871, All that was left of the Homeward Bound (1873) showing a shipwrecked girl clinging to a plank in the sea with, typically, a dog for company, and in 1875 War Time and The Last of the Garrison. Riviere continued to produced a mix of contemporary genre, classical and animal subjects, building besides a reputation as a fine colourist. He became ARA in 1878 and RA in 1881, his Diploma painting being an animal picture, The King Drinks.
This biography courtesy of Bob Speel, click here to see his page dedicated mainly to 19th century British art.) 

ROE, Robert Ernest (fl 1868-1875)
A painter and etcher of coastal subjects as well as harbour and river scenes. He was an accomplished artist whose work was never fully recognised.

ROMNEY, George (1734-1802)
With little formal training, he became one of the most successful English portrait painters of his day. A visit to Italy enhanced his reputation when considered in competition with other contemporary portrait painters such as Sir Joshua Reynolds. Many of his portraits are of young women and are extremely sympathetic in their treatment. He was elected President of the Royal Academy.

Rowlandson, Thomas (1756 - 1827)
A gifted draughtsman and caricaturist, Thomas Rowlandson could draw before he could write, by the age of 10 spent much of his free time drawing. In 1772 he enrolled at the Royal Academy Schools, obtaining a silver medal at the Academy in 1777. In 1778 he left the Academy and opened a studio in Wardour Street where he worked as a portrait painter, he also traveled in Europe where he drew pictures of his experiences. During the 1780s he started to concentrate more on caricature and satirical art rather than portraits, over the next couple of decades he produced cartoon sequences such as 'The Microcosm of London' (1808), 'The Tours of Dr. Syntax' (written by William Combe), 'The Military Adventures of Johnny Newcombe' and 'The English Dance of Death'. The plates for these works were drawn and etched by Rowlandson, then aquatinted, hand coloured and published by Rudolph Ackermann's studio.

RUBENS, Peter Paul (1577-1640)
A Flemish painter, gifted artist, fine colourist and draughtsman. Influenced by study in Italy, he painted large, sumptuous works and classical subjects full of light and life, as well as fine portraits. He was commissioned by Charles I to decorate the ceiling in the Banqueting House, Whitehall.

Sadler, Walter Dendy (1854 - 1923)
One of the true masters of domestic genre along with his contemporary Frank Moss Bennett. His subjects were usually set in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries with sentimental, romantic and humorous themes. Before painting a scene he would create elaborate settings in which local villagers would often pose as models. Indeed, as he often used the same props and models, these can sometimes be seen repeated in successive paintings in different guises. The home, the inn, the lawyers office, the garden and the golf course all provide subjects for his wit and clever social observation. A member of the RBA, he also exhibited at the RA.

SANDERSON-WELLS, John (1872-1955)
A painter of portraits, sporting subjects and animal studies. His hunting scenes are full of action and colour and his horses are well drawn. Member RI.

Sant, James (1820 - 1916)
Accomplished painter of portraits and genre subjects, he was in great demand to paint the nobility and other prominent members of society life. He also painted genre subjects of an allegorical nature. Elected RA.

SCOTT, William Henry Stothard (1783-1850)
A painter of landscapes and rural scenes who lived in Brighton. He depicted the neighbouring British countryside of Sussex and Surrey and places of interest in these counties such as Arundel Castle, as well as scenes from his travels abroad. Exhibited RA and Associate of OWS.

SEALY, Allen Culpeper (1850-1927)
A skilled painter of horse portraits and hunting scenes as well as a noted landscape artist. He painted largely around Mapledurham and Hampshire. Exhibited RA.

SHAW, John Byam (1872-1919)
A painter in the late Pre-Raphaelite tradition. His pictures are elaborately composed and decorative with his figures well studied and carefully drawn. He used pure pigments to give his work an illuminated appearance. Associate of RWS and member RI.

SHERRIN, Daniel (fl 1890-1912)
A talented painter of landscapes and scenes along the coast of Norfolk and Suffolk. His work varied in quality and he was a pupil of Benjamin Williams Leader (qv), indeed, he was known to very occasionally add Leader's signature to his own work in order to add value. His better work is worthy of his tutor and is full of atmosphere and charm.

SIDLEV, Samuel (1829-1896)
Mainly a portrait painter, his work includes various genre and literary subjects, some of which were engraved. He received many commissions for commemorative and presentation portraits. Member RBA and exhibited RA.

Slingsby, Thomas (fl 1871)
A painter of horses and hunting scenes.

SLOCOMBE, Edward (1850 - 1915)
Born in London and part of a noted family of artists, Edward Slocombe was a painter, etcher and mezzotint engraver. Some of his etchings were published in The Art Journal and the Portfolio, also a number of etchings of church bulidings were published by the Fine Art Society. Member of the RPE (Royal Society of Painter-Etchers.)

SLOCOMBE, Frederick Albert (fl 1886 - 1920)
A London painter of landscapes, coastal scenes and genre, better known for his work as an etcher. His landscapes convey the characteristic charm and serene atmosphere of the English countryside. Exhibited RA, member RPE.

Stone, Marcus (1840 - 1921)
A painter of historical and romantic genre, often set in the eighteenth century. The subjects, of a sentimental nature  captured the interest of the Victorian print buying public. As am illustrator, he worked for Cornhill Magazine and he also illustrated for Dicken's "Our Mutual Friend". Elected RA.

STOTHARD, Robert Thomas (fl 1821 - 1865)
A painterof portraits, figurative subjects historical and literary genre. Exhibited RA.

STRUTT, Alfred William (1856-1924)
A talented artist, who was widely published. He was born in New Zealand although he lived most of his life in London. He painted variety of subjects including genre portraits and sporting pictures. Almost all his pictures are characterised by an amusing twist, often a parody of the subject depicted. Exhibited RA.

STUBBS, George (1724-1806)
An animal painter and etcher born Liverpool, he is widely accepted as the master of equine art. He studied anatomy to be a portrait artist, and from this was inspired to study the anatomy of the horse. Dissecting dead horses, he drew and engraved every detail, publishing "The Anatomy of the Horse" in 1766, a book still referred to today.

STURGESS, John (fl 1875 - 1884)
A sporting and animal painter who exhibited widely in the London galleries. He spent many years studying the action and behavior of horses and their anatomy and was consequently able to capture the reality, dangers and excitement of the hunting and steeplechase field. Known also as an accomplished illustrator of books and magazines.

SWEET, Dorothy (fl 1920 - 1929)
London based painter and etcher.

SWINSTEAD, George Hillyard (1860 - 1926)
From a talented family of painters, he was educated at the Royal Academy Schools and began his career as a portrait and genre painter. These scenes often included children and dogs. In later life, his interest lay with coastal scenes. Exhibited RA and SS and member RBA and RI.

SYMONDS, William Robert (1851-1934)
Born in Suffolk, he studied portraiture in London and Antwerp. As an accomplished portrait painter, he received many commissions from society circles as well as important dignitaries. He exhibited "Babes in the Wood" at the RA in 1901.

TAYLER, John Frederick (1802-1889)
A painter of sporting subjects and landscapes, illustrator, lithographer and etcher. He is perhaps best known for his Scottish landscapes. An accomplished artist, his skill with watercolour led to his election as President of the Royal Watercolour Society.

THOMPSON, Jacob (1806-1879)
Born in Cumberland he was a painter of landscapes, portraits, animals and genre. After a period in London, he moved to Scotland to paint Scottish scenes, especially those depicting Highland life, which were a particular favourite of his. Exhibited RA.

THORBURN, Archibald (1861-1935)
Famous Scottish animal painter, born in Edinburgh and known for his pictures of Highland animals and especially game birds. He visited Scotland each year from London, where he had moved in 1885, and made detailed sketches from nature of game birds, which he then worked on in his studio using his main medium, watercolour. The resulting pictures, with a uniquely delicate style, are remarkable for their precision and are probably the most celebrated images of these birds known. He illustrated many books on birds, including "British Birds" in 1915 and exhibited at the RA.

TOMSON, Clifton (1775-1828)
A Nottingham painter of animal portraits, particularly race horses, and sporting scenes. An influence of George Stubbs (qv) is evident in the natural portrayal of his horses. One of the most famous horses he painted, "Orville", was owned by Earl Fitzwilliam.

TOWNE, Charles (1763-1840)
An accomplished painter of horses and racing scenes. From humble beginnings, he worked hard to improve his skill as a painter and finally after various jobs, he was given the opportunity to exhibit his work in Liverpool, after which his career flourished. He was ultimately elected President of the Liverpool Academy.

TROYON, Constant (1810 - 1865)
French Barbizon School painter. Specialised in landscapes and animals.

TURNER, Francis Calcraft (1795 - 1865)
Painted a variety of subjects, but racing and hunting scenes were his favourite as these were sports in which he took part. Based in London, most of his paintings depict scenes in and around the city.

TURNER, Joseph Mallord William (1775-1851)
Born in London and considered by many to be the greatest landscape and possibly the greatest British artist to date. Like Sir Edwin Landseer and Sir John Everett Millais  he exhibited at the Royal Academy at an early age, entering the School at the age of fourteen and exhibiting his first watercolour a year later. His style evolved, with early works being finely detailed figurative watercolours. Gradually his painting became increasingly impressionistic, concentrating on atmosphere, space and light. This approach, together with that of John Constable had a great influence on the Impressionists. He painted many scenes in Britain as well as abroad as he travelled extensively, sketching as he went. He was greatly involved in the publication of his paintings as engravings, and dealt closely with the engravers he employed. This was necessary as often the translation of Turner's impressionistic style into lines on an engraved plate required a large amount of artistic input. As with most geniuses, he was attacked by the critics in his time, but the art establishment recognised him; he was elected RA in 1802 and in 1807 was made Professor of Perspective at the Academy, in 1845 he became Deputy President.

VEAL, George (fl 1893)
A painter of portraits and animals. His main interest was the portrayal of hunting and coaching scenes, and he was known for his talent of accurately depicting horses in action.

WALLER, Samuel Edmund (1850 - 1903)
Genre and animal painter, born in Gloucester. His subjects were generally sentimental and romantic, and often depicted horses. His hunting works concentrated on the social rather than the sporting aspect of the subject, and he often portrayed his characters in eighteenth century costume. Worked also as a magazine illustrator and exhibited at the RA.

WALSH, T N H (fl. 1878 - 1882)
A well published painter and engraver of horse racing, hunting and coaching scenes.

WARD, James (1769 - 1859)
An accomplished painter and engraver of landscapes, animals and sporting subjects. His work became increasingly dramatic and ambitious in scale as he achieved success and was rewarded with the appointment of Painter and Engraver in Mezzotints to the Prince of Wales. Elected RA.

WARD, John (1798 - 1849)
Known as John Ward of Hull, a marine artist who was self taught, he became a skilled draughtsman and painter of shipping scenes. He was a local leader in the field of marine art and a founding member of the Hull School of painters

WARDLE, Arthur (1864-1949)
A London painter who, with little formal training, became one of the most famous animal painters. His speciality was dog subjects but he was also interested in both domestic and wild animals. Many references for his work came from studies made of exotic animals at London Zoo. Member RI and PS. Exhibited SS and RA from 1880.

WEAVER, Arthur (b. 1919)
Widely accepted as the leading contemporary golf artist, the combination of exceptional figure study, together with the combination of a skill for landscape painting has resulted in a wide popularity. He has painted some of the finest golf courses in the world and his paintings hang in some of the leading golf collections including the Professional Golf Association Museum in Far Hills, New Jersey. In addition to golf, he was chosen by the MCC to paint Lord's Cricket Ground; the oil now hangs in the Long Room at Lord's amongst some of the finest memorabilia of the game.

WEBB, William Edward (1862-1903)
A marine painter. Based in Manchester, England, he visited many parts of the coast to research his pictures thoroughly. Influence of JMW Turner (qv) is noticeable in later works particularly in his treatment and use of light.

WEBSTER, Thomas (1800-1886)
A painter of portraits and genre. He studied at the Royal Academy and was awarded a gold medal there in 1824. After the success of an exhibition at the British Institute of a painting depicting schoolchildren at play, he developed this theme and used it for much of his genre subjects. His style and technique were widely praised and show influences of the 17th century Flemish School. He was elected RA in 1846.

WEEKES, Herbert William (fl 1864- 1904)
Born in London, he was known as William Weekes. His father was a successful sculptor and Royal Academician but he reacted against his father's work and established himself as a painter of animals and genre. He would pose animals, in humorous situations, almost personifying them and created a style that became very popular. Exhibited at RA.

WILKIE, Sir David (1785 - 1842)
A Scottish portrait, historical and genre painter. Born in Fife, he studied in Edinburgh and London and was inspired by Dutch and Flemish painters. He shows an influence of William Hogarth, although the style he developed was still his own; detailed, strong and rich in colour. His success lay in his ability to capture ordinary human situations with humour and sympathy. His work was very popular and was widely published. Chosen as painter to George IV, he was knighted for his services in 1831. Elected RA.

WINTERHALTER, Franz Zavier (1805 - 1873)
A German portrait painter and lithographer who had an international reputation as one of the best court painters of his day. He painted many of the royal families of Europe, including Queen Victoria and other members of the British Royal Family, as well as many portriats of the British aristocracy.

WOMBILL, Sidney R (fl 1841)
A respected painter of horses whose skill resulted in many commissions for portraits of champion horses of his day.

WONTNER, William Clark (fl 1879 - 1922)
A London portrait painter. His portraits of young women, displaying a later Pre-Raphaelite influence, captured the beauty of his sitters and were widely published.

WRIGHT, George (1860 - 1942)
A very well respected painter of horses, his subjects were predominately of coaching, hunting, polo and other equine sports. He is perhaps one of the most widely published sporting artists, yet very little is known of his life. His work was well painted with much movement and has been the inspiration for many contemporary sporting artists. Exhibited RA from 1892.

WYLLIE, William Lionel (1851 - 1931)
An oil and watercolour painter and etcher of coastal and marine scenes. He studied at the Royal Academy, where he was awarded the Turner gold medal in 1869 and from there went on to become one of the most proficient marine artists of his time. Many of his subjects were based around London and Portsmouth and he painted the contemporary British fleet as well as a great number of historical subjects. Elected RA in 1907 and member RI and RE.

YEAMES, William Frederick (1835 - 1918)
W. F. Yeames, son of the British Consul in South Russia, was much encouraged by his parents in his youthful artistic proclivities. At the age of six, to enthuse him further, the whole family went on a leisurely tour of Italy. Unluckily, in the second year of the excursion, Yeames's father died. The family settled in Dresden. Yeames junior was tutored in art at home, and in 1848 he moved to London where he studied under the sculptor Westmacott and also George Scharf. There followed a return journey to Italy, after which, in 1854, Yeames went back to England and had his first pictures exhibited at the RA. He became somewhat of an establishment figure, becoming ARA in 1866 and being elected RA in 1878, then Librarian at the Academy, and holding other offices such as Curator of the Painted Hall at Greenwich.
Yeames painted popular historical and genre pictures, with a lively sense of dramatic expression. His best known picture is And When Did You Last See Your Father? (Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool), showing Cromwellian soldiers questioning a captured Royalist boy. Another important picture is Amy Robsart (1877), purchased by the Chantrey Bequest the year before Yeames was elected an RA. An example of a rather later work by Yeames is Defendant and Counsel (1895), which is at Bristol.
(Yeames biography courtesy of Bob Speel, click here to see his page dedicated mainly to 19th century British art.)

 

The above text Copyright Thomas Ross Limited & Steve Bartrick.
Images Copyright Thomas Ross Limited. Unauthorised reproduction is prohibited.

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